Xerox, in full Xerox Corporation, major American corporation that was a pioneer in office technology, notably being the first to manufacture xerographic plain-paper copiers. Headquarters are in Norwalk, Connecticut.
The company was founded in 1906 as the Haloid Company, a manufacturer and distributor of photographic paper. In 1947 the firm obtained the commercial rights to xerography, an imaging process invented by Chester Carlson (see also electrophotography). Renamed the Haloid Xerox Company in 1958, the company introduced the 914 xerographic copier in 1959. The process, which made photographic copies onto plain, uncoated paper, had been known for some time, but this was its first commercial application. The product brought so much success and name recognition that the company has waged a continuing campaign to prevent the trademark Xerox from becoming a generic term. The company changed its name to Xerox Corporation in 1961.
After the success of its first copier, Xerox expanded into other information products and publishing businesses and founded PARC, a research lab in Palo Alto, California, in 1970. While remaining a major reprographics manufacturer, the company went on to develop word-processing machines in 1974, laser printers in 1977, and Ethernet, an office communications network, in 1979. Xerox sold its publishing firms in 1985. The company’s product lines included copiers, printers, digital print production presses, and the software and systems support required for document production. In the 1990s Xerox developed digital photocopiers.
The company received the 2003 IEEE Corporate Innovation Recognition award, an honour presented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., to industrial, governmental, academic, or corporate entities for the development of outstanding products or concepts that advance electrotechnology; Xerox received the award for its DocuTech product line, which combined copier and computer resources to allow for the digital transmission and storage of documents for print via a single machine, thereby creating the print-on-demand (POD) industry. Xerox filed a patent in 2006 for photosensitive “erasable paper,” which produced prints with images lasting only a day, thus allowing for the continuous reuse of paper. The company acquired the technology sales and services company Global Imaging Systems (GIS) in 2007. The same year, Xerox received the U.S. National Medal of Technology (now the National Medal of Technology and Innovation), the highest honour awarded by the president to the country’s leading innovators.
Most of the company’s 21st-century innovations occurred under the leadership of Anne Mulcahy, who in 2001 became the first female chief executive of Xerox and, the following year, its first female chairperson. Upon her retirement in 2009, Mulcahy selected company president Ursula Burns as her successor. Burns’s appointment marked not only the first time an African American woman headed a company of such size but also the first time a female chief executive replaced another at a Fortune 500 company.
Paul Smith, manager of the Xerox Research Center of Canada PARC materials design and synthesis lab, unveils “erasable paper” at Wired NextFest, 2008.
Greig Reekie/Courtesy of Xerox Corporation
Burns’s tenure began as Xerox faced declining revenue, and she sought to transform the corporation. To this end, she oversaw Xerox’s 2010 acquisition of Affiliated Computer Services (ACS), which was involved in outsourcing business services. The transaction reflected a growing trend among technology companies to focus on services over products. However, this move, as well as others, failed to reverse Xerox’s losses. In 2017 it spun off ACS and other service holdings to form the independent company Conduent. That year also saw Jeff Jacobson succeed Burns as CEO.
Faced with its continued decline within the technology industry, Xerox announced in January 2018 that it was being acquired by Fujifilm in a deal valued at more than $6 billion. The two companies had a standing business relationship, having created the joint venture Fuji Xerox in 1962. The newly created company was expected to retain that name and serve as a subsidiary of Fujifilm. The proposed merger, however, was strongly opposed by two of Xerox’s major shareholders, Carl Icahn and Darwin Deason, both of whom believed that Xerox had been undervalued in the deal. They filed a lawsuit, and in May Xerox announced that it was calling off the merger. Various personnel changes were also announced, including the departure of Jacobson as CEO.